Roman medicine was largely religious and holistic. When Greek surgeons and doctors came to Rome in the third century BC, the practice of medicine advanced drastically. The Roman army had permanent doctors and military hospitals, with one usually in each fort. Civilian medicine did not enjoy such impressive progress, due to the overwhelming risks of infection, blood loss, and pain, which were associated with any surgery delving deeper than the surface. The most common ailments that required doctors were those of the skin, digestion, fertility (and contraception), and fractures.
To find out more about Roman medicine please see our relevant blog post: Roman Medicine and Medical Tools.